Supporting School Social Media Use from the Top

June 23, 2015

Today’s post is a poster called “Supporting School Social Media Use from the Top”. It provides what I consider to be the key ideas and/or ways administrators and school leaders can support social media use in their schools. Please heed the copyright notice at the bottom of the poster. You are free to link back to this page. If you would like permission to re-use or re-produce this poster, just email me at Julia[dot]Hengstler@viu[dot]ca.  As to why I’m not using Creative Commons myself–that’s a post for another day. I hope you find this helpful. Let me know what you think.

Poster: Supporting Social Media Use from the Top


Teacher Sick Day? GASP!

February 26, 2015
Sick. Photo by Leonid Mamchenkov (Creative Commons, Attibution)

Sick. Photo by Leonid Mamchenkov (Creative Commons, Attibution)

This is not my usual topic for a post, but it’s an education opinion piece.

I was recently sick—but am not teaching this semester. (Note: This is not a picture of me sick: first clue, I’m female. 😉 ). I remembered my K-12 teaching days and how I sweated over whether or not to take a sick day.

I tried to find some tips for teachers to support them when they are sick & really should take a day off. Yes, this situation does actually occur: teachers, in schools with oodles of germy students, are not superhuman and do indeed get sick themselves. Sometimes they get seriously ill. Teachers (and other workers in other jobs) have allotted sick days because it’s a fact: we all know people get sick.

I admit I was a bit disgusted to see that most of what rose to the top in Google results were allusions to teachers using sick days indiscriminately or for a “day off” to miss work. There were even statistics that say that teachers take a disproportionate amount of Fridays & Mondays off. (Hey, my doctor’s office is often overrun on Mondays with sick people. Any correlations?)

In one article, a teacher reported how the school administration sent around an email stating that students sick with vomiting or diarrhea should stay home for 2 days before returning to school–but same standard was not in place for teachers.

Another teacher pointed out how much work is involved in staying home–arranging a substitute/teacher-on-call, creating some lesson plans, dealing with whatever other outfall then and upon your return. He then prided himself on only ever taking 2 sick days in XX years of teaching.

Do people abuse the system? I’m sure like every system there are abusers, but teachers do get legitimately sick and rather than coming into school, spreading their illness and extending their time required to get better, they need to take a sick day and visit the doctor.

So, if you are sick and should stay home or in bed— Teacher, take a sick day.

End of MS Clip Art Means Educators Need to Pay Attention

December 16, 2014

I recently got the news that Microsoft Office will no longer have Clip Art (see more here ). What will happen now is that your search for images to embed in MS Office documents (Word, Excel, Publisher) will be handled by Bing (a search engine owned by Microsoft) using a filter to identify Creative Commons Licensed materials. In theory, this should return “useable” images for you, but the reality is a bit more complex for the average educator. Please read on.

What You Need to Know About


Every CC License Except “CC0” Has Requirements for the User

Many people think they are free to use Creative Commons licensed materials in whatever way they want. This is incorrect. Creative Commons content is licensed in a particular way and all but one of the licenses has requirements. The exception license is designated “CC0” where the creator/author is contributing content to the “public domain” meaning you can do whatever you want with it, however you want. Some countries do not legally recognize that authors/creators can directly put work into the public domain. cc-0.fw

There are 6 other commonly recognized forms of Creative Commons (CC) licensing. What they all have in common is that EVERY ONE of the other 6 licenses requires ‘attribution’ as a minimum requirement when you make use of that content. Below is a quick grid of the 6 main licenses (other than CC0), their icons, and the requirements for use.

Creative Commons License Requirements (J. Hengstler, December 2014)

cc-by.fw  Attribution (BY)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
cc-by-nd.fw  Attribution- NoDerivatives (BY-ND)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
  • Redistribution OK if it remains unchanged from the original
cc-by-nc-sa.fw  Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike (BY-NC-SA)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
  • Redistribution & derivative works OK if non-commercial
  • New works must carry same licensing
cc-by-sa.fw  Attribution-ShareAlike (BY-SA)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
  • Redistribution & derivative works OK New works must carry same licensing
cc-by-nc.fw  Attribution-NonCommercial (BY-NC)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
  • Redistribution & derivative works OK if non-commercial
cc-by-nc-nd.fw  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (BY-NC-ND)

Requirements for the User:

  • Credit the author/creator
  • Redistribution OK if non-commercial
  • No derivative works can be created

MS Bing’s CC Search Filter is Reliable, Right?

Tom Kulhmann, a respected blogger & elearning developer, did a recent test of the Bing search function with MS Office (T.Kuhlmann, 2014, Microsoft is Dumping Clip Art. What Are You Going to Do?). He unfortunately found that the Bing image search returned images from sites “under some sort of Creative Commons license, [but] many of the images [my emphasis] were not necessarily owned but the site author”. He goes on to say, “In my tests, there was nothing to indicate that the site owner actually had rights to the image for me to use. So basically, you can’t trust the images you find in the search [my emphasis]” (T. Kuhlmann, Microsoft is Dumping Clip Art. What Are You Going to Do?).

Your Take-Aways

As an Educational Technologist in a Faculty of Education, here’s my advice to educators:

  • Remember anytime you use Creative Commons content you have obligations—the least of which is attribution (unless it is CC0, Public Domain.)
  • Don’t trust Bing’s image search results as your sole test to determine if the image itself is licensed under Creative Commons & which license it is.
  • Do a little legwork to find the original version of the image online & check it’s licensing. (If you need help, ask others to give you a hand or try
  • Find other sources of Creative Commons licensed image—some ideas below.
  • Be sure to follow the requirements of the particular image’s Creative Commons license.

Some tips to search for appropriately licensed alternative content:


A Canadian Copyright Decision Tree for BC Educators

November 27, 2014

Recently, I was asked to present at Jane Jacek’s (@JEJacek on twitter) school in #SD61 Victoria on the topic of copyright and copyright compliance. As part of the preparation process, I thought it would be handy to have a decision tree. I though one already existed for this, but when I tried to track one down I couldn’t find one. So, I thought I would just have to make one for Canadian copyright and teachers. I needed a big virtual canvas for this as it has various pathways. So, the actual decision tree is housed as a Prezi. The image below is a single screen capture of the entire canvas of “A Canadian Copyright Decision Tree for BC Educators“. Please click on the link above, image or link below, to go to the Prezi itself and see the content in more detail.Hengstler's Canadian Copyright Decision Making Tree


Link to Prezi: A Canadian Copyright Decision Tree for BC Educators (J. Hengstler, 2014)

Feel free to comment or send me an email if you find any errors or omissions you feel should be included.

I hope it helps Canadian teachers–especially those in my province–more readily navigate copyright decisions.

My Reflective Practice: Pondering Implications When Students Reflect the Teacher

October 30, 2014
(Image source: "Mirror, mirror on the wall" by epicture's (More off than on); Creative Commons license;

(Image source: “Mirror, mirror on the wall” by epicture’s (More off than on); Creative Commons license;

As I come to the finish of my second cohort for OLTD 506: Special Topics—Social Media, I am reflecting on my evaluation perspective. It’s not so much the nuts and bolts—though those are affected—but whether what I am marking is based on my expertise in a emergent field, specifically FIPPA (RSBC 1996) compliant educational uses of social media in British Columbia, Canada, or whether there is something more at play. What brought this to mind was an incident in the final synchronous meeting session with the 2014 post-graduate students. While I was in the midst of the final session, I received an email from a colleague in the K-12 sector with a very interesting social media situation. I verbally reframed the issue as a mini-case study to protect the identifying information, and posed the question to the attendees. My thought at the time was, “What better final test of what my students have learned, then to see how they would respond to an informed BC educator’s concerns in this situation? Could they target the key concerns?” A second thought was, “And how well would their analysis align with mine as the expert learner in this situation?”

When several of my students stepped up to the virtual mic, each addressing the key issues as I would have identified them, and proposing the rationale—again as I would have explained it, I was very proud of them: their responses clearly indicated that they were able to process the issue in the way I, as an ‘expert’ in the area would have done. Later, I began to reflect on my response to the students’ analyses more deeply. Was I reacting favourably to my students’ responses because they were what would be expected of an expert, or because they reflected what I specifically would have done? It’s a difficult question for me, as I believe at this point in time there are few people with the knowledge and expertise to train educators in the issues surrounding social media use within the scope of the strict privacy legislation governing BC public schools and institutions. At the same time, I am aware and quite explicit with my students that I have clear philosophical leanings. For example, I believe that social media has a place and purpose in a 21st Century classroom, that teacher professionalism extends to work with and in social media, that privacy is not dead and the respect for it needs to be taught, that educators have a role in supporting student development—and by extension the development of society—in the pro-social uses of technology for teaching and learning. As I continue to reflect on this as an educator, one thing is clear: if my students continue responding to social media issues as they did in the final synchronous session of OLTD 506 (2014), I believe that it will be evident that they studied the topic under my guidance.

Quite often, we can trace the philosophical/academic lineage between students and teachers when we know the work of the individuals just as we see influences between artists. I haven’t necessarily judged this student reflection of the teacher as good or ill. I think I need to further ponder and analyze the potential implications for myself and my students. I also think that my process and evaluative approaches are founded and driven by my philosophical underpinnings and therefore cannot be teased apart. Perhaps only the field can ultimately value whether having my students reflect my process/evaluative knowledge and my philosophical leanings is positive. As with all things, maybe it will only be good, until something better comes along. When it does, I’ll be signing up for that professor’s course. 😉

The Compliance Continuum: FIPPA & BC Public Educators

April 24, 2014


As I encounter and work with BC educators at all levels of public education who are using–or want to use–social media and cloud computing, it has become evident that they have a range of orientations regarding the applicability of the British Columbia Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA). This can apply to a single teacher, a school administrator, or a wider group as a whole. Now don’t get me wrong–FIPPA is a law and applicable to all educators using social media and cloud computing in BC public institutions and there are consequences for not following it; however, how educators see this varies. My conception of BC educators’ positions is longer than it’s fair to put in a blog post, so like the “Primer” (, I’ve linked it in this post as a longer PDF. Click on the cover image to download the document or use the link near the end of this post.

Here’s the abstract: Hengstler theorizes a continuum of 6 compliance positions for educators (Avoidance, Ignorance, Knowledgeable Non-Compliance, Approaching Compliance, Establishing Compliance, & Full Compliances) with regard to the application of British Columbia’s (Canada) Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA) to the use of social media and cloud computing tools in BC public schools. The article concludes with a call for collaboration to increase compliance.

Link to article for download:

I look forward to hearing your feedback and comments.

Raising Techno-Responsible Kids: Story 2

February 27, 2014

Bike with training wheels; social media logos on rear tire

While I was commuting into work Tuesday, I was listening to The Kid Carson Show ( on Sonic (Chilliwack, BC, Canada). The segment dealt with his 9 year old step-daughter’s request for Instagram—and his response. Much of the discussion and the commentary from listeners dealt with what I’ll call a binary approach—like a 0 or a 1—where our children are seen as either having no access whatsoever (0) or full unrestricted access (1). If you’re in the “no access” camp,  you should know the question is not whether your kids will get access to social media—regardless of type—but when, how, and how prepared they will be to use it.  Ask yourself, “If I’m not preparing my kids to use social media, who is? Whose values will they take into these environments? Who will help them learn how to make good decisions with these tools?”

Many of us overlook a middle ground where our kids can have managed access. Managed access could look like: 1) we post content on their behalf & share responses through our own adult account ; 2) we have an account that is shared between ourselves & our children; or 3) our kids have their own account and share their passwords and content with us. If you think about it, it’s a lot like how many of us learned to drive a car or ride a bike. We started out observing how a skilled adult did it—from back seats or kid seats. We might have tried it on a kiddie version under parental supervision—a Little Tykes car or a tricycle on the driveway. All the time our parents were correcting us where we needed it, supporting and directing. Then we got to a semi-independent stage where parents “rode along” in the front seat or ran alongside. They were chattering away to us even then about what was safe—or not. Eventually, when we had some skill, and they had some confidence in our abilities—we got the keys to the car or we got to take the bike down the road alone. Social media use is a lot like that.

Think of it as 3 phases based on maturity rather than years, and those phases are based on a parent’s knowledge, observation, and confidence in a child’s abilities and core values when using technology. In my work with my own children—9 & 10 years old now—I see these phases as:

  • Digital by Proxy
  • Digitally Coached
  • Digitally Independent

Out of the blue, would you just hand over the keys to your car one day and think your child had the skills to drive? In my opinion, kids don’t magically reach an age where they get the keys to the digital kingdom—they earn them. An approach I use is one where children get graduated, monitored access depending on the tool, their behaviour and maturity. The phases will vary tool by digital tool—and child by child.

Digital by Proxy

In the Digital by Proxy phase, I as a parent will post things on my children’s behalf through my accounts. I will filter content I post—say no pictures of their faces—and discuss why some things are safe to share and others not. I will act as a digital bridge between them and the online world talking through our values and having discussions. I use Twitter a lot and have done this with things my sons wanted to post on Twitter.  A few months back my oldest son (10) asked for his own Twitter account. We talked about why he wanted the account and whether he was ready for it—did he have people he wanted to follow? Did he have content he wanted to share? etc. Since the only person he wanted to follow was me (likely because I was posting content for him), I explained that most of my stuff was “ed tech” and would likely be pretty boring for him. He didn’t have content he wanted to share regularly, so we decided that if he did want to share things, we would use my account as we have in the past. We also agreed that I would share any responses to content I had posted on his behalf.

Digital by Proxy is not just about being a digital “stand in”; it’s also about discussing what it is to be a digitally responsible person. You need to discuss with your children moral and ethical questions about being digital as you encounter them.  For example, Tuesday was a snow day for all of us in the family—all schools closed—including mine. The Simi Sara Show ( ) on CKNW was discussing the story of a woman in Calgary who was being digitally shamed. (BTW a good free reading in this area is Chapter 4 in Daniel Solove’s The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the Internet called Shaming and the Digital Scarlet Letter). My kids and husband were drifting in and out of the kitchen as I sat listening and tweeting. I shared snippets with them. It led to a good discussion over lunch on the ethics of digitally shaming people—even if they did do something wrong. My not-so-techie husband also weighed in on the discussion. It got to a point where we began to see the issue as a question of whether ends justify means and we talked about digital shaming as a type of #cyberbullying . As I said to my husband, “If we don’t like what someone’s doing, shouldn’t we talk to the person directly? If that doesn’t work—or we’re afraid to approach that person, we teach our kids to report behaviour to the designated responsible adults. Rather than digitally shaming people, shouldn’t adults do the same—especially if it’s what we want kids to do? If that has been tried and doesn’t work, that’s a different story.”

I’m big on digital proxy where the risks to children might be higher—e.g. exposure to baddies, etc.—or my kids’ maturity & skills are low (which makes me see the risks as “higher” than for a more mature or skilled child) and when they are unclear about uses for the tool. From the outset, it should always be about your kids being safe and responsible online—so they can get the most benefit with the least risk.

Digitally Coached

My response to my sons’ request for text messaging when they were 8 & 9, was different. Both had face-to-face friends they saw infrequently—friends from summer vacations and distant family—and nearby friends with whom they wanted to interact regularly. Text messaging is a great way to stay in touch with these people and in my opinion, their texting circle could be easily managed. Our agreement was that each boy could have separate texting accounts, but that I would set them both up, maintain the passwords, and have the ability to review their use. In the beginning—especially with my youngest, they would text some stuff I would call “junk”—gobbled-gook or inappropriate statements (in line with bathroom humour)—some of which was directed to me as their initial contact for texting.  I discussed with them that a texting account was a privilege & that they needed to show me they could be responsible with it. I check in on their texts from time to time. When they go a bit sidewise with their behaviour, we talk about it and I usually use the phrase, “That kind of behaviour shows me that you’re not ready for your own account [separate from me].” They know they shouldn’t use the accounts to say things that they wouldn’t say to people face-to-face (a house ground rule for technology use).  Some other ground rules for our texting use are that my kids may only text with people approved by me and who they know face-to-face (that includes my husband or I knowing the others face-to-face).  I have written about our ground rules before ( ).

Similarly, though both my kids have asked for their own iTunes accounts—and some of their friends already have them—I have said no. I have certain expectations about the choices my kids will make for their apps. I’ve discussed this before in my blog. Games that virtually humiliate victims, etc. just don’t make the cut. My kids ask for apps and have to be ready to discuss what the app is and does—and I’ll take a closer look if I think it’s necessary. In the beginning I got lots of requests for inappropriate apps and games—often because friends had them. When the boys describe an app or game that’s sounding questionable, I usually respond with something like, “That doesn’t sound too nice. Would we do that in real life?” Don’t get me wrong, as I’ve mentioned before, killing dinos to save the village—or zombies to save living brains—usually makes the cut, but virtually bullying a person in a virtual office by throwing things at them, or virtually kicking a virtual friend absolutely does not. If I reject an app or game, I discuss with them why it doesn’t make the cut. Popularity of an app or game alone is not a reason to have it, by our family standards. I know there are “parental controls” for kids’ accounts—but I think I’m a bit more thorough. In the beginning, my boys would ask for their own iTunes account, but as I said to them, “You need to show me you can make good choices about what to download.” I must say that almost all of their more recent app and games requests have been fully appropriate—and yes, some of them may be a bit more violent then I would have let them play a year or two ago.  Don’t tell them, but the time for their own iTunes account with some automated “parental controls” may be coming sooner then they—or—I thought.

In this Digitally Coached phase, I want my kids to be able to make mistakes that won’t cost them later—won’t damage the digital footprints they are creating. I want my kids to learn how to be respectful and responsible—even if they see people online who aren’t. I want my kids to see how digital tools can be used to connect them to a wider world and more perspectives in good ways and how to navigate and deal with the bad ones. I can do this by talking through their use alongside them—much like a coach. But to coach them, they must have a place and opportunity to develop and practice their skills—and I must have some skills as well.  I know some parents feel challenged keeping up with technology—but even if you are feeling overwhelmed, you can have access to a shared account, or monitor what your kids are saying and doing online. You don’t have to know how it’s done yourself but you can know whether  their content and behavior  are “acceptable” by your standards. Now I know that there will be some readers who will say kids can make end-runs around parents. That’s true, but if you are in a trusting relationship with your kids, it’s my belief that they will keep you in the loop with some accuracy.

The digital coaching phase is where the parent feels that risk can be comfortably managed and the kids will benefit from practice and access. It will vary by kid and by digital tool—and by parent. When a parent in your circle says, “Well, I let my son/daughter use that a year ago!” be prepared with, “I’m glad to hear you feel that confident about his/her ability to manage the risks at this age” and leave it at that.

Digital Independence

On the radio, Kid Carson asked me at what age I thought kids might be ready for their own independent accounts on something like Instagram. That’s a complex question and involves a lot of judgement. First you have to know your child and be able to judge his or her maturity level using a digital tool. If you have worked with your kids through the Digital Proxy and/or the Digitally Coached phases with online tools, you have more information by which you can judge the readiness of your child. Even when you feel fairly confident in their skills, it’s always important to review the values and rules you have in place. Remind your children of those values and rules in your discussions of stories in the news or media. Get your kids to weigh in on the stories. Ask them if they see their friends using the tools in “good ways” and “bad ways” & get them to give you examples and reasons why those uses might be good or bad. Ask them, “What did you do with digital tools today that helped someone?” and “Do you think you did anything that hurt someone or made them feel bad?”.  These kinds of discussions help surface the framework your kids are using to judge their own behaviour.

Before you allow your kids to have independent accounts, be ready for mistakes. Think through a few likely scenarios where your child might do something “wrong” by your standards, what the consequences might be for your child, and how they can rebuild your trust and confidence in them (if it was broken). Discuss those standards, consequences, and reparations with them upfront—negotiate as you feel appropriate. Some parents have been known to draft written contracts (See this article ).  It’s up to you how formal to make that. In my house we’re happy with discussing  rules  and consequences and reminding our kids of those rules and consequences from time to time. What is important is that everyone is clear on the standards of behaviour expected and the consequences for not meeting those behaviours. I have revoked access to technology on a few instances–but the boys had ways to rebuild my trust and regain access later.

Ultimately, our kids will grow up. They will be in a society where digital tools and social media are widely available and used by most people. As a parent, I believe I should try my best to prepare my children to use technology in safe and responsible ways and to be people I can be proud of—online and off.